Copying Files in Linux/UNIX
- The 'cp' command can be used to copy a file:
$ cat > foo.py
print 'Hello from Foo'
$ python foo.py
Hello from Foo
$ cp foo.py boo.py
$ python boo.py
Hello from Foo
- The cp command looks like this:
- cp <filename> <destination_directory or destination_filename>
- cp foo.py boo.py
- cp foo.py /home/web/cs110/week5
- cp foo.py ../week6/boo.py
Remotely Logging into a a Machine
- You can use the 'ssh' command to remotely log into another computer as long as you have an account on the target machine:
- For example:
- ssh stargate.cs.usfca.edu
- You will have access to a shell and all the normal Linux/UNIX commands
Copying Files between two Machines in Linux/UNIX
- You can also copy files between two different computers
- Use the 'scp' command (it stands for "secure copy")
- For example if you want to copy some of you work from your virtual box machine to your CS home directory you can do the following:
- scp file.py stargate.cs.usfca.edu:
- You will be asked for you password.
- This will copy file.py to your home directory.
- You can also give a destination directory:
- scp file.py stargate.cs.usfca.edu:cs110/labs/week5
- This assumes that the directory /home/<username>/cs110/labs/week5 exists
Using the Finder to Copy from Ubuntu in VirtualBox to your CS Account
- Bring up the Finder (the Home Folder icon on the left side of the desktop)
- In the location box, enter
- e.g., ssh://email@example.com
- Then go to:
- e.g., home/benson
- e.g., home/web/benson
- You can use drag and drop to copy/move files.
- From the command line, you can now use the shell to copy files:
- cd ~/.gvfs/SFTP<tab>
- e.g., on my machine I get:
- cd ~/.gvfs/SFTP\ for\ benson\ on\ stargate.cs.usfca.edu/
- You can use this directory to copy files in and out of your CS account
Building Strings in Python
- Many ways to build up strings in Python
- Printing with commas:
- Printing with out a newline:
- Format string:
- s = "Hello %s" % ("World")
- String Templates (see below)
String Templates in Python
- There is another useful way to construct strings: the Python String Template:
$ cat template.py
from string import Template
t = "First: $fname, Last: $lname"
s = Template(t)
print s.substitute(fname='Greg', lname='Benson')
- Break up problem into smaller pieces
- Get pieces working first
- Start to build bigger pieces from smaller ones
- Incremental development
- Get partial functionality working fully, then add additional functionality.
Console-based Unit Conversion Tables
- You should first get your unit conversion functions working with the console.
- Here is an example:
$ cat in2cm.py
return inches * 2.54
return centimeters / 2.54
def print_conversion(value1, value2):
print '%f : %f' % (value1, value2)
if __name__ == '__main__':
print 'Create inches to centimeters conversion table'
start = input('Start value: ')
end = input('End value : ')
step = input('Step value : ')
i = start
while i <= end:
v1 = i
v2 = inches_to_centimeters(i)
i = i + step
Use if __name__ == '__main__': to run test code.
Show how to turn while loop into a function
Show how to select between different conversions
- Much of program development is really debugging.
- That is, you first write some code that you believe will do what you want.
- Then you run it and it doesn't work.
- (a) It may have syntax error, so Python won't even run it.
- (b) It may have run-time errors (Exceptions).
- (c) It may not produce the expected output.
- Case (a), Syntax error are usually easy to figure out, because Python will tell you where the problem is.
- Case (b) is a little harder because the exception may depend on the input.
- Also you may not always see run-time problems right away
- Case (c) requires you to rethink what you are doing.
Debugging CGI Programs
- Run your script with python on the command line.
- To send arguments as if they came from the URL and webserver
$ QUERY_STRING="first_name=Greg&last_name=Benson" python cgi.py
- Compound types and the bracket operator 
- s = "Hello World"
- print s
- c = s
- Indicies start at 0
- print s
- Can index from end of string with negative numbers: print s[-1]
- Length (len)
- Returns length of string
- Loop traversal: while
- We can use our loop template to traverse s string.
- Loop traversal: for
- It is easier to use a for loop:
for c in s:
- We can extract a substring from a string using a slice:
- print s[0:5]
- Does not include the last index.
- print s[6:]
- Lexigraphical order
- s2 = "Abracadabra"
- s2 < s
- Can't alter strings: s = "b'' won't work.
- Instead, you just create a new string
- s_new = "Bye " + s[6:]
- print s_new
- The in operator
- You can determine if a character is in a string using "in"
- "e" in s
- Example: count characters
- We want to write a function that determine how many times a character occurs in a string:
- def occurrences(s, c):